Several Types of Vertebrate Animals and Their Characteristics

Vertebrates are a group of animals that have rows of bones from the neck to the tail, also known as the spine. This bone functions as a support for the body and protects the nervous system. Vertebrates also exist underground, on the surface, and in water. In terms of size, vertebrates can range from small fish to elephants and whales.
The following is about the characteristics and types of vertebrate animals below:
Vertebrate Characteristics

  1. The body consists of the head, body, and 2 pairs of locomotion. Some species have a tail
  2. Animal bones spread from the back of the head to the tail
  3. The digestive system extends from the mouth to the anus, equipped with digestive glands
  4. Body symmetrical bilaterally
  5. Closed circulatory system
    6.The inner part of the organs is protected by the skeleton (endoskeleton)
    7.The outermost part of the vertebrate body is a skin composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer)
  6. There are vertebrates covered with fur and some covered with hair
  7. Excretion tool in the form of kidneys
  8. Respiratory apparatus in the form of lungs, skin, or gills
    Types of Vertebrates
    This grouping is based on the covering of the body, the means of movement, and the method of reproduction. Here are the groupings:
  • Fish (Pisces): Fish are including vertebrates because they have a skeleton composed of hard bones that contain calcium phosphate. Pisces have a habitat in water with a gill-like breathing apparatus. Other traits of Pisces are:
    • Tools of movement in the form of fins and tail
    • Body structure consisting of a head, body, and tail
    • Do not have earlobes
    • Its body is slimy and covered with scales
    • Fish that live in mud have a breathing apparatus in the form of a maze
    • Cold-blooded
  • Amphibians: Amphibians are vertebrates that can live in two habitats, namely land, and water. However, not all types of Amphibians live in two habitats, such as several types of frogs and salamanders. Its overall habitat is close to water and humid places such as swamps and tropical rainforests. Here are the characteristics of amphibia:
    • Living in water (in the larval stage) and on land or other humid places (adult phase)
    • The covering of the body is skin that is smooth and not scaly
    • Respiratory apparatus in the form of gills, lungs, and skin
    • Reproduction by producing eggs that are not shelled
    • Fertilization occurs outside the parent body (external fertilization), in water, or a humid place.
    • Some species of amphibians undergo changes in body shape during the growth process (metamorphosis)
  • Birds (Aves): Aves have feathered bodies that form wings and are used for flight. However, not all ages can fly. Flightless aves include chickens, geese, and turkeys. Some of the characteristics of birds, namely:
    • Live on land
    • Respiratory apparatus in the form of lungs and an additional device in the form of air sacs as a place to reserve air when flying long distances
    • The bones are hollow so they are light
    • Reproduction by laying eggs, characterized by large eggshells and yolks
    • Fertilization occurs in the parent body (internal fertilization)
    • Heat blood
  • Reptilia: Reptilia is a type of reptile that has scales all over its body. Reptiles have hard, dry, and scaly skin made of horn substance (keratin). Reptile scales function to prevent dryness. Reptile characteristics are:
    • Living on land, several species can live in water
    • The tools of movement are short legs with a longer tail
    • Reptiles are generally meat-eating predators (carnivores)
    • Cold-blooded
    • Reproduction by laying eggs and some are reproducing by laying eggs and giving birth